Hi my version is attached
Adaptive power setting is disabled, tried high performance but didn't change screen timeout.
It is always 30 second. Sometimes changed to 10 mins but always goes to 30 seconds automatically.
You can choice a auto management method or you can rewrite mode with another options to adapt to your requirements.
It is a special automatic option to adapt the phone to your use, and it will try to save more power for you.
Also you can define others parameters there, in Battery, but any will affect to the screen timeout.
To overwrite Timeout go to Settings / Screen / and search to overwrite there the screen timeout to the desire value.
I have selected in menu, Optimal and Adaptive Power checked and 30s in the other place menu on my phone
I have set as you tell me 10 or 2 minutes in my case, after and before to change Power Plan and Adaptive and combinatorials, and the System respect values.
Check if you have an additional program that overwrite selected value. There are a lot of them and its can create a confusion.
As recommendation, Samsung devices has an particular option as use that consist in show screen on while device to be in front of your eyes, this will spend a little bit more battery but could be useful for variant times and timeout off after x second if it not be in front of you
Sorry for my English I have not high writing skills in your language
I wait that someone with your same terminal and options can test for you, in mine is right and respect timeout always as I told you.
Be fun and I wait as user or develop that you can fix issue along for adquire experience for you and us if you tell us the solution after to found issue object