I too have a Note10+ and am not seeing this setting available! I did find an app called "Smart Call" when I searched for Apps and I enabled permissions on it. Restarted phone... Still did not work! 😞
I have the same problem on my SM-G973F with the latest available software installed. I cannot enable the "Caller ID and spam protection" feature. It's greyed out. So why Samsung is implementing or showing features on a phone when I cannot even use them ? Its very annoying since I frequently receive foreign spam calls.
You can download Hiya call id and block app, and set hiya as default phone app. Not sure how i got prompted to download it, maybe from within hiya in settings/apps