I'm sorry to know that your network provider was not able to assist you on enabling the security feature of their network. Please do know that it will depends on the network provider you're using on your phone.
It is a security if a network provider where you would need to register the number for ''Spam protection or caller ID feature''. Please report it back to your network provider since only the network provider can activate the network security, not Samsung.
In My case, the spam protecction doesn’t Work because My s10 is from the united states but i live in México and i have a mexican sim... when I put a sim from the united states inside My phone the spam protection Works... Now I need to know how can I change the firmware to the mexican version