I tried the SE-506, build May 2013, with a Dell XPS 9350 running Win10/Ubuntu. I got it to read one CD with Windows; no luck at all with Ubuntu. I tried it with a 2008-eara Mackbook Pro 5,1; it was able to read one CD, but not some other tests. I tried a few different cables; no luck. I tried the registry edit suggested in this thread; no luck.
ETA: Just tried it with my work laptop, a Thinkpad T480S (Win10). The drive read CDs, DVDs, and Blu-Rays, no issues. Unfortuantely I am not able to install software on this laptop (and if Windows had tried to install something, I'd have been notified), but I think this verifies that this an issue between certain computers and the BR drive, not necessarily Windows 10 and the drive.
None of this solves what I was originally trying to do, which was just rip some CDs to Ogg/FLAC, but hey, I killed two hours debugging old hardware in order to not solve anything.
And lo, a solution appears: Connecting a DA-200 dock to the XPS 9350's USB-C port, then connecting the SE-506 to the DA-200, let me read CDs, DVDs, and Blu-Rays! CD ripping and DVD playback work fine. (I don't have a way to test Blu-Ray playback.)
I also tried running the SE-506 off of an old USB 2.0 dock that I have - an IOGear GUH420! - and was NOT able to load any media via that pathway.
I wonder if something like this (https://www.amazon.com/dp/B077GRXXYV/) would do the trick, without needing a dock, but obviously taking up a USB-C slot. (Have not ordered or tested.)
E3TA: Maybe I need to take all of that back. After successfully reading one CD, the XPS 9350 stopped reading any of them. Windows tries, but can't quite pull it off.